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Anatomy & physiology | Science homework help


Part ONE




Questions 1 to 25: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page


Break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.


1. A patient is having problems with the function of the small intestines. What will this problem most likely?




A. Lubrication


B. Acid secretion


C. Nutrient absorption


D. Waste storage


2. A patient is told that she has a joint disorder that’s caused by an infection. What type of disorder does


this person have?


A. Bursitis


B. Osteoarthritis


C. Gout


D. Septic arthritis


3. What are the constituents of DNA?


A. Lipids, nitrogenous bases, and proteins


B. Sugars and lipids


C. Sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases


D. Proteins and sugars


4. A person needs to lie on the stomach to expose the back for a procedure. In which position will the


person be placed?


A. Prone


B. Supine


C. Fowler’s


D. Trendelenburg


5. Which one of the following processes is achieved through osmosis?


A. Transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus


B. Particles of oxygen filling the lungs


C. A cube of sugar dissolving in coffee


D. Water moving across the cell membrane


6. Which part of the endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes lipids and steroids?


A. Smooth


B. Rough


C. Cilia


D. Flagella


7. A 22-year-old man is stabbed in the chest. Which organ systems are most likely to be directly injured?


A. Nervous and circulatory systems


B. Respiratory and circulatory systems


C. Respiratory and reproductive systems


D. Digestive and endocrine systems


8. During an emergency room examination for an injured arm, the physician palpates the arm’s entire


length, starting at the shoulder and ending at the fingers of the hand. This process takes him from a(n)


_______ position.


A. anterior to ventral


B. proximal to distal


C. right to left


D. coronal to transverse


9. When you do a push-up from the floor, what kind of movement describes the motion of your elbow?


A. Extension


B. Rotation


C. Flexion


D. Abduction


10. The skin plays a major role in


A. absorption of vitamin A and certain drugs.


B. temperature regulation and sensation.


C. retention of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide.


D. synthesis and storage of proteins.


11. What is the medical term for the kneecap?


A. Tarsus


B. Femur


C. Patella


D. Tibia


12. Muscles are attached to bones by


A. ligaments.


B. cartilage.


C. nerves.


D. tendons


13. A patient is infected with an organism that enters the cell and uses the cell’s energy parts to grow and


multiply. What type of organism is causing this patient’s infection?


A. Protozoa


B. Fungi


C. Virus


D. Bacteria


14. In which phase of the cell cycle are the chromosomes split?


A. Prophase


B. Metaphase


C. Telophase


D. Anaphase


15. What is the mechanism that maintains a stable environment within the body?


A. Prognosis


B. Symptoms


C. Syndrome


D. Equilibrium


16. A person is diagnosed with a problem with the gall bladder. Which part of the abdomen will be


examined for this problem?


A. Left upper quadrant


B. Right lower quadrant


C. Right upper quadrant


D. Left lower quadrant


17. A person has a sideways curvature of the vertebral column. What type of curvature does this person




A. Kyphosis


B. Ptosis


C. Scoliosis


D. Lordosis


18. The process of breaking a complex substance down into smaller components is called


A. catabolism.


B. neutralization.


C. anabolism.


D. metabolism.


19. A patient has a problem with adjusting water balance and tissue metabolism. Which structure within the


endocrine system regulates these functions?


A. Thymus


B. Pituitary gland


C. Adrenal glands


D. Pancreas


20. While being examined, a patient is found to have problems moving the thumb. Which type of joint is


being affected?


A. Saddle


B. Hinge


C. Gliding


D. Pivot


21. During football practice, a high school student injures the left pectoral girdle. Which bones are affected


by this injury?


A. Clavicle and scapula


B. Scapula and humerus


C. Clavicle and ischium


D. Scapula and radius


22. The function of smooth muscle is to provide


A. rapid contractions.


B. involuntary movement.


C. cushioning around the joints.


D. skeletal support.


23. A eukaryotic cell in a human body has just reproduced assexually. Which of the following has mostl


likely just occurred?


A. Mitosis


B. Meiosis


C. Fertilization


D. Metastasis


24. Glucose is the main source of cell energy, but any glucose that can’t be used immediately is stored for


future use as


A. fat.


B. carbohydrates.


C. galactose.


D. glycogen.


25. Chromosomes can be seen only during


A. neutralization.


B. active transport.


C. cell division.


D. meiosis.








Questions 1 to 25: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page


break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.


1. A person is complaining of muscle weakness, numbness, paralysis, and pain. Which disorder of the


nervous system is this person most likely experiencing?


A. Carpal tunnel syndrome


B. Peripheral neuropathy


C. Meningitis


D. Myasthenia gravis


2. Where are keratinized cells found in the body?


A. Hair and nails


B. Subcutaneous layer of the skin


C. Capillaries and nerve endings


D. Sweat and sebaceous glands


3. The three membranous coverings that protect the brain and spinal cord are called


A. gyri.


B. pons.


C. meninges.


D. sulci.


4. A seven-year-old boy breaks his tibia and requires immobilization by a hard cast for six weeks until the


break heals. A potential consequence of this therapy is atrophy of the


A. gastrocnemius.


B. trapezius.


C. serratus anterior.


D. pectoralis major.


5. The skin plays a major role in


A. storage of fatty tissure for energy.


B. retention of oxygen and excretion of carbon dioxide.


C. synthesis and storage of proteins.


D. absorption of vitamin A and certain drugs.


6. The __________ gland regulates the function of many other endocrine glands.


A. thyroid


B. thymus


C. adrenal


D. pituitary


7. Structurally, what is the difference between the dermis and the epidermis?


A. The epidermis is thicker.


B. The epidermis consists of mostly adipose cells.


C. The dermis contains more types of tissue.


D. The dermis is made mostly of dead cells.


8. The muscle contractions that propel food through your intestines are controlled by the _______ nervous




A. voluntary


B. peripheral


C. central


D. autonomic


9. A secretary who experiences pain, swelling, and tingling sensations in her hands and arms may suffer




A. bell’s palsy.


B. neuritis.


C. carpal tunnel syndrome.


D. trigeminal neuralgia.


10. A 6-year-old boy is noticeably taller than his classmates. He stands 5 feet, 7 inches tall. What glandular


problem do you suspect he may have?


A. Dysfunction of the posterior pituitary gland


B. Dysfunction of the anterior pituitary gland


C. Dysfunction of the parathyroid gland


D. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland


11. A person is diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. What is another name for this disorder?


A. Addison’s disease


B. Cushing’s syndrome


C. Hashimoto’s disease


D. Graves’ disease


12. After an eye examination a person is told that glasses are needed for nearsightedness. What common


disorder of the eye is this person experiencing?


A. Myopia


B. Amblyopia


C. Hyperopia


D. Presbyopia


13. Which process is performed by the endocrine system?


A. Breakdown of hormones into simpler molecules


B. Secretion of hormones from cells


C. Transport of hormones to muscles


D. Excretion of hormones from the body


14. In addition to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane, a single neuron possesses


A. one dendrite and several axons.


B. one nucleus and many neuroglia.


C. many nuclei and one neurilemma.


D. several dendrites and one axon.


15. Which part of the ear is normally filled with fluid to aid in the transmission of sound waves?


A. Semicircular canals


B. Auditory canal


C. Cochlea


D. Malleus


16. A person is having problems chewing. Which cranial nerve is most likely affected in this person?


A. Accessory


B. Trochlear


C. Trigeminal


D. Abducens


17. The portion of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities is a subdivision of the _______


nervous system.


A. sympathetic


B. parasympathetic


C. peripheral


D. central


18. A 63-year-old man has become progressively hard of hearing. He’s a retired airplane mechanic. He also


notices a lot of wax in his ears. What kind of hearing loss is this man likely to have?


A. Infectious and sensorineural


B. Infectious


C. Conductive


D. Conductive and sensorineural


19. Which part of the brain is responsible for the maintenance of muscle tone and the coordination of


muscle movements?


A. Hippocampus


B. Hypothalamus


C. Cerebellum


D. Midbrain


20. A young man happens to spot an ex-girlfriend he’s trying to avoid. Why does his mouth become dry?


A. His central nervous system shuts down saliva production.


B. His sympathetic nervous system overrides the parasympathetic stimulation for


saliva production.


C. His cervical plexus overrides the parasympathetic stimulation for saliva production.


D. His cranial nerves shut down saliva production.


21. A 15-year-old gymnast falls and suffers an injury to her brachial plexus. What action might now be


difficult for her?


A. Extending her wrist


B. Flexing her knee


C. Flexing her foot


D. Extending her neck


22. Acne is an example of a(n)


A. nodule.


B. papule.


C. vesicle.


D. ulcer.


23. The hypothalamus is considered the brain of the brain because it


A. controls voluntary movement.


B. maintains balance.


C. regulates vital body functions.


D. produces cerebrospinal fluid.


24. A 60-year-old woman is diagnosed with a tumor in her left temporal lobe. The surgeons remove the


tumor along with a large portion of her temporal lobe. After surgery, the woman might have difficulty with


A. detecting taste.


B. moving her arms.


C. sensing pain.


D. speaking fluently.


25. Impairment of the vagus nerve may affect the ability to move the


A. tongue.


B. face.


C. eyes.


D. lungs.








Lesson 3


Questions 1 to 45: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page


break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.


1. As we grow older, our hair turns grey because of a reduction in an enzyme that neutralizes


A. lunula.


B. keratin.


C. hydrogen peroxide.


D. sebum.


2. A 30-year-old man is involved in a serious car accident from which he suffers internal injuries. The man


requires surgery to remove most of his pancreas. What condition may develop as a possible consequence


of this surgery?


A. Diabetes


B. Bell’s palsy


C. Cushing’s syndrome


D. Acromegaly


3. A young child has a neurological disorder that causes spastic paralysis. What disease does this child most


likely have?


A. Myasthenia gravis


B. Huntington’s disease


C. Cerebral palsy


D. Subdural hematoma


4. A middle-aged patient is diagnosed with a bone disorder caused by vitamin D deficiency. Which type of


disorder is caused by a lack of vitamin D?


A. Osteomalacia


B. Osteomyelitis


C. Osteoporosis


D. Scurvy


5. A patient presents to the emergency room with a severe headache that began after a bike accident, in


which he suffered a blow to his head. A CT scan shows bleeding between the dura mater and the


arachnoid layers. What is the correct diagnosis?


A. Subdural hematoma


B. Subarachnoid hemorrhage


C. Epidural hemorrhage


D. Epidural hematoma


6. Several bones form the _______, which is attached to leg bones and muscles.


A. xiphoid process


B. pelvic girdle


C. obturator foramen


D. axial skeleton


7. A 32-year-old man has trouble tying his shoelaces, writing, and walking in a straight line. A computed


tomographic (special x-ray) scan of the brain would likely reveal that the man has an abnormality in the


A. cerebellum.


B. diencephalon.


C. brain stem.


D. cerebrum.


8. What movement are you demonstrating if you stand with your arms down at your sides and lift them up


to shoulder height?


A. Adduction


B. Abduction


C. Rotation


D. Flexion


9. On what part of the body are sudoriferous glands present in highest concentrations?


A. On the scalp and thighs


B. Under the arms and on the palms of hands


C. On the back and behind the knees


D. On the neck and arms


10. A medical procedure performed to keep the ends of a broken bone together is called


A. reduction.


B. casting.


C. remodeling.


D. traction.


11. Both cranial and spinal cavities are contained within the _______ cavity.


A. dorsal


B. thoracic


C. anterior


D. orbital


12. Respiration, heart rate, and digestion are all regulated by the _______ system.


A. autonomic nervous


B. peripheral nervous


C. sympathetic


D. limbic


13. The part of the brain that translates the impulses that the eyes receive into vision is the


_______ lobe.


A. frontal


B. parietal


C. temporal


D. occipital


14. Bone cells that deposit new bone are called


A. endostea.


B. erythrocytes.


C. osteoblasts.


D. osteoclasts.


15. The white matter that provides for communication between the right and left sides of the cerebrum is


called the


A. central fissure.


B. cerebral aqueduct.


C. choroid plexus.


D. corpus callosum.


16. A protein molecule that can affect a chemical reaction in the body without being affected by the


reaction is a(n)


A. phospholipid.


B. carbohydrate.


C. steroid.


D. enzyme.


17. A patient has blue eyes. Which part of the eye has color?


A. Retina


B. Vitreous humor


C. Sclera


D. Iris


18. What type of fracture, common among children, is characterized by incomplete breakage of the bone?


A. Compound fracture


B. Comminuted fracture


C. Greenstick fracture


D. Closed fracture


19. The inner ear contains three semicircular canals that are exclusively used for


A. maintaining balance.


B. hearing faint sounds.


C. equalizing air pressure.


D. transmitting sound waves.


20. By what process is a particular substance engulfed by a cell membrane and then digested?


A. Diffusion


B. Phagocytosis


C. Pinocytosis


D. Osmosis


21. The hormones stored in the posterior pituitary are released only when triggered by the


A. pancreas.


B. parathyroid.


C. hypothalamus.


D. thalamus.


22. A patient has a disease process that affects the adrenal cortex. Which hormone level will be affected by


this disease process?


A. Growth hormone


B. Adrenocorticosteroids


C. Norepinephrine


D. Glucagon


23. Infant bones are very soft and pliable because of


A. mineral deposition in select areas of the body.


B. incomplete ossification at birth.


C. cartilage formation throughout the body.


D. fluid accumulation between collagenous fibers.


24. A 27-year-old woman suffers a fracture of the tibia where a part of the bone is pushed through the


skin. How would this fracture be classified?


A. Spiral


B. Compound


C. Comminuted


D. Hairline


25. The second largest bone in the body, and the only bone in the upper arm, is the


A. humerus.


B. radius.


C. scapula.


D. ulna.


26. The study of tissues as a part of microscopic anatomy is known as


A. histology.


B. physiology.


C. endocrinology.


D. cytology.


27. During a windstorm, something is blown into your eye causing you discomfort. You immediately rub


your eye to try to remove the particle. What part of the eye might be irritated by this rubbing?


A. Retina


B. Optic nerve


C. Sclera


D. Cornea


28. Movement across a cell membrane that occurs through a selectively permeable membrane is called


A. filtration.


B. facilitated diffusion.


C. diffusion.


D. osmosis.


29. Glucose is an example of a


A. triglyceride.


B. monosaccharide.


C. polysaccharide.


D. diglyceride.


30. A state of _______ is necessary for proper cell function within the body.


A. bacteriostasis


B. homeostasis


C. ionization


D. neutralization


31. The basic unit of structure and function of all living things is the


A. atom.


B. ion.


C. molecule.


D. cell.


32. _______ carry messages away from the cell body.


A. Myelin


B. Axons


C. Neurilemma


D. Dendrites


33. All 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain, spinal cord, and all parts of


the body, are called _______ nerves.


A. motor


B. sensory


C. mixed


D. cranial


34. The simplest response to a stimulus is a


A. motor movement.


B. reflex.


C. parasympathetic response.


D. sympathetic response.


35. The loss of heart muscle tissue is detrimental because the tissue


A. grows too rapidly.


B. doesn’t repair itself.


C. heals very slowly.


D. builds up in the heart.


36. In which step of cell division does the nucleus disappear and spindle fibers are formed?


A. Metaphase


B. Prophase


C. Telophase


D. Anaphase


37. A 45-year-old man dislocates his shoulder. To restore proper joint position, the doctor must maneuver


the head of the


A. humerus back into the socket of the clavicle.


B. femur back into the socket of the clavicle.


C. femur back into the socket of the scapula.


D. humerus back into the socket of the scapula.


38. The body’s master gland is the


A. testes.


B. thyroid.


C. pituitary.


D. thymus.


39. A patient is scheduled to have the parathyroid glands removed. What will the removal of these glands


most likely affect?


A. Calcium level


End of exam


B. Level of growth hormone


C. Genetic transfer


D. Red blood cell production


40. Which membrane covers the brain surface?


A. Dura mater


B. Pia mater


C. Periosteal mater


D. Arachnoid mater


41. _______, or afferent, neurons carry messages toward the spinal cord and brain.


A. Sensory


B. Motor


C. Interneurons


D. Associative


42. Which pair of hormones exerts opposite effects?


A. Calcitonin and epinephrine


B. Insulin and glucagon


C. Growth hormone and insulin


D. Thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone


43. Which neurotransmitter is needed for muscle function?


A. Epinephrine


B. Serotonin


C. Acetylcholine


D. Norepinephrine


44. A patient comes in to see the physician after stepping on a rusty nail. Which health problem is this


patient prone to developing?


A. Guillain-Barré syndrome


B. Neuritis


C. Tetanus


D. Myasthenia gravis


45. A patient has fractured the right trochanter. Where is this patient’s injury?


A. Femur


B. Neck


C. Elbow


D. Lower leg










During your study, you may have found one of the medical


disorders you read about to be especially interesting. This


assignment gives you an opportunity to apply what you’ve


learned by doing some research in outside sources and


increasing your understanding of one disorder.




Go to and


read the instructions for research papers. Select a single medical


disorder that affects the skeletal, muscular, integumentary,


nervous, sensory, or endocrine systems. Consult the software


program Anatomy & Physiology Revealed 3.0, and determine


the Histology and possible Imaging studies used to diagnose the


disorder. Utilize other resources including textbooks, journal


articles, and primary websites to validate your findings. Then


prepare a detailed report on the medical disorder, including


the following elements:


1. Definition


2. Method(s) of diagnosis


3. Symptoms and complications of the disorder


4. Diagnostic findings from Imaging and Histology


5. Treatment of the disorder


6. Methods of prevention, if any


7. Directions for future research


The information from this course should be incorporated but


not limited to what you’ve learned while studying this course.




82 Research Project




This assignment is designed to help you apply what you’ve


learned from your lessons by researching and writing about a


medical disorder you’ve studied and to give you an opportunity


to demonstrate your written communication and research skills.




1. Type your submission, double-spaced, in a standard


print font, Times New Roman or Arial Font size 12. Use


a standard document format with 1-inch margins. (Do


not use any fancy or cursive fonts.)


2. Include the following information at the top of your paper:


a. Name and complete mailing address


b. Student number


c. Course title and number (Anatomy and Physiology 1,


SCI 135)


d. Research project number (40943400)


3. Read the assignment carefully and address the topic


suggested. Use proper citation in either APA or MLA style.


4. Be specific. Limit your submission to the main


topic identified.


5. Include a reference page in either APA or MLA style. On


this page, list websites, journals, and all other references


used in preparing the submission.


6. Proofread your work carefully. Check for correct spelling,


grammar, punctuation, and capitalization.


Research Project 83




Your grade will be based on the following criteria:


Content 40 percent


Written communication 40 percent


Format 20 percent


Here’s a brief explanation of each of these points.




The student


Provides a clear discussion of the assigned topic or issue


Addresses the subject in complete sentences, not just


simple yes or no statements


Supports his or her opinion by citing specific information


from the assigned websites and any other references using


correct APA or MLA guidelines for citations and references


Stays focused on the assigned issues


Writes in his or her own words and uses quotation


marks to indicate direct quotations


Written Communication


The student


Includes an introductory paragraph, a body,


and a concluding paragraph


Uses correct grammar, spelling, punctuation,


and sentence structure


Provides clear organization (for example, uses words like


first, however, on the other hand, and so on, consequently,


since, next, and when)


Makes sure the paper contains no typographical errors


84 Research Project




The paper is double-spaced and typed using either Times


New Roman or Arial in font size 12. It includes the student’s


Name and complete mailing address


Student number


Course title and number (Anatomy and Physiology 1,


SCI 135)


Research project number (40943400)


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